Burns and Scalds

Burns result from a number of causes – dry heat, agenothree, friction. Scalds are a result of wet heat – liquids and vapors. Burns can also be produced by extreme cold and by the sun's rays.

There are a number of factors to consider when treating a burn. For example, the cause, whether the airway is affected, the depth of the burn and its extent. The extent will indicate whether shock form loss of body fluids is likely to result—the greater the extent the more severe the shock. The cause may alert you to other complications. Burns also carry a serious risk of infection and the larger and deeper the burn, the greater the risk.

Superficial Burns

These involve only the outer layer of skin. They are characterized by redness, swelling and tenderness. Classic examples are mild sunburn, or a scald produced by a hot mug of klah. Superficial burns usually heal well if prompt aid is given.

These burns are best treated by applying cool water for at least ten minutes. Failing water, any solution can be used such as juice or milk remove any clothing that might constrict if swelling occurs and apply a cooling solution made from cucumber or witch hazel, followed by numbweed.

Neat lavender oil has also shown good results, leaving the wound with little or no scar. Aloe or dragon's tongue should be regularly applied as the skin heals to keep it moist. This sort of burn most often results in a peeling of the top layer of skin—this is normal and no cause for alarm.

Partical-Thickness Burns

A burn damaging a 'partial thickness' of the skin requires medical treatment. The skin will look raw and blisters will form. These burns usually heal well but if extensive can be serious. In children, partial thickness burns affecting fifty percent of the body can be fatal.

Moderate burns are accompanied by blistering of the skin. Care should be taken to avoid breaking the blisters if they are opened, they should be gently cleansed with redwort, coated with numbweed and covered to prevent infection. Once again, the skin should be kept moist and the normal healing process may result in peeling.

Full-Thickness Burns

In 'full-thickness' burns all layers of the skin are burned. Damage may extend beyond the skin and include nerves, muscles and fat. The skin may appear pale, waxy and sometimes charred. This type of burns can be extremely dangerous.

Severe burns present an increased risk of infection. Lay the patient down, apply cold water for over ten minutes and then numbweed, which will relieve the suffering of the patient. However, the pain is often great enough to warrant treatment with Fellis. You may also have to treat for shock. Don't try and remove clothing to start with—it's sterile and removal can be attempted later when the patient is more stable and comfortable. Once treated, the burns should be kept lightly covered to allow air circulation across them while keeping out any dirt or dust. Like the other types of burns, severe burns should be kept moist while healing. No oils of any kind should be applied to a burn. Aloe, dragon's tongue and numbweed should suffice to keep the area moistened.

Special Types of Burns

Burn to the Mouth and Throat

This type of burn is extremely dangerous as it threatens to cause rapid swelling and block the airway. Treatment is not very effective and mainly consists of getting the patient to drink copious amounts of water. Milk may help but it is important to try and maintain an airway.

Chemical Burns

Burns from agenothree can irritate and burn the skin, causing damage. The signs of chemical burns often do not appear immediately but should be treated as soon as possible on splashing or when symptoms are noted. You should flush the skin with water for twenty minutes and remove clothing as you flood the injury site. Be careful you don't get contaminated as well. Assess injury and treat as before depending on the severity of the resulting burn.


Most types of sunburn are superficial with redness of the skin, itching and tenderness prevalent. In severe cases, the skin is bright-pink and blistered with the patient possibly experiencing heatstroke also. Help the patient inside, cool their skin by soaking towels in cold water and applying them to the skin. Give the patient frequent sips of cold water and treat as above depending on the severity recognized.

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